Often, in houses and apartments, if hot water is not very stable or it isn’t being put out at all, many people install an electric water heater . The basic operating principle: a mounted electrical container with heating elements which heats the water by a thermostat in the water heater. This temperature is stably supported by the set temperature on the thermometer. Electric water heaters come in different volumes and capacities. Typically, capacity and volume are interrelated, because the more water, the more powerful the heating element is needed to quickly heat it.
For skilled and reliable installation of the water heater, it is necessary to use the services of a plumber who is professionally engaged in the task. After all, it is a question not only of water, but also electricity. A plumber will install your water heater which will ensure your own safety as well as your family.
Installation of the water heater is held at the special L-shaped mounting. Most often they are screwed into the dowel, and hammered in a hole in the wall. It is strictly forbidden to fix the water heater to a wall made of drywall. An exception may be a small water heater capacity of 8 gallons, which are mounted on the wall on which the tile is put. But even in this case, you should consider a more reliable method of fixing the water heater.
Inset it into the system for producing and supplying respectively cold and hot water, it is carried out in any convenient location. In most cases, use of polypropylene or plastic pipes.
Connecting the water heater to the electricity is performed using an electric circuit breaker (batch file).
Type water heater
When choosing a water heater, the main thing to decide on is the type of model. There is running, storage, and liquid heaters.
Accumulation water heater – the principle of operation resembles a kettle, as water fills the vessel and is heated to the desired temperature.
- minimum power consumption;
- may operate at low pressure water;
- is able to serve several cranes;
- water may be heated to high temperatures;
- long time keeps the water temperature high.
- a limited amount of hot water at a particular time. The need to wait until the warm up next portion;
- considerable size, which depends directly on the volume of the container;
- the need for periodic replacement of the magnesium anode;
- the complexity of the installation.
Flow water heater – principle of operation lies in the fact that the water passes through the tube, equipped with an electric heater.
- compact size;
- reasonable cost;
- very rapid heating water – depending on the capacity: 2 l / h to 27 l / h;
- there are no special requirements for water quality.
The main disadvantage is the high capacity, so they cannot be connected to an ordinary wall socket – parts required to make a direct connection to the shield. Furthermore, in conventional apartments wiring is not designed for such loads may require a separate power cable.
Also among the drawbacks:
- low maximum heating temperature – 113-122 ° F;
- are able to serve only a single tap;
- the need for high water pressure, which is often not in the high-rise buildings.
Crane instantaneous heating – hose connected to a cold and hot water within the device. Such a crane in a matter of seconds heats the water to 158 ° F. Drawback – a large power consumption. Such a solution is recommended for buildings where it is impossible to install a water heater or draw hot water.
Gas – the most economical option, provided that the gas is supplied into the room. Disadvantages: the complexity of the installation and the obligatory presence of ventilation. A gas heating method is best suited for continuous flow water heaters.
Electric – Gas easier, but at the cost of electricity is significantly higher than gas. The most suitable option for storage water heaters, which are low power and can be connected to the outlet.
Indirect (for the accumulative water heater) – heats the water from another source, e.g., from the water heater. This can only be a water heater. Advantage – efficiency and lack – operates only during operation of the heating system.
Combined – combines the functions of an electric and indirect water heater. Electricity is used as a supplementary heating.
Installation and connection hoses
Installation can be a wall (suspension), the floor and integrated (e.g., under the sink), depending on the location of the selected cylinder.
Suspension device saves space on the floor, but it is complex to install and makes corresponding demands on the reliability and strength of the wall mounts. In addition, the suspension setting puts a limit on the weight (and hence power) and the cylinder volume (volume 40 gal).
Floor installation requires no additional support and fixtures but takes place on the floor. The most powerful and productive units are floor (volume above 40 gal).
There are two types of wall mounting:
- Horizontal – is a good option to install the water heater in a niche or on a shelf, but for small spaces, such a decision is not necessary;
- Vertical – perfect for small rooms.
There are machines that can be mounted horizontally or vertically, depending on the particular situation.
Important: Choosing a wall heater, take into account the weight of the unit and the water in the tank. The resulting sum and make the load on the scene. Naprimer water heater 13 gal weighs about 154 lbs. (44 lbs. dead weight + 110 lbs. – water by weight).
If the choice fell on the wall heater capacity of 26.5 gal, it is recommended to create it additional floor support – support or rack. This will take some of the load from the walls and fixtures.
The liner is lower (Installation over the sink), the upper (installation under the sink) and side (for bulk water heaters). The quality of the installation depends on the efficiency of the instrument. breakages often occur precisely because of improper installation.
This parameter determines the cylinder capacity (volume of water heated by the device for one minute). From the power consumption depends on the feature of mounting the device: if the models up to 5 kW are sufficient household outlet, then the more powerful heaters (5-8 kW) requires a separate wiring from the panel with a separate fuse.
For flow-through water heater, as already noted, it requires high power. So as to obtain a stream of warm water intensity of .5-.8 gal per minute, you need a water heater capacity of 3.5-5 kW. That’s enough to wash the dishes, food, cooking.
For 3-4 liters per minute required power 6-8 kW (enough to take a shower). There are also more productive models, heating 2 gals per minute – they consume 12-30 kW. Such devices provide both hot water to a number of standpipes points (possible to simultaneously use water in the kitchen and bathroom).
For storage water heaters require significantly less power – from 1.2 to 1.5 kW (some models consume 2-2.5 kW)
By this measure the water heater is selected depending on the number of persons who use the hot water, and the number of taps.
- 8 gallons – for 1;
- 13 gallons – for a family of 2-3 people;
- 21 gallons – for a family of 3-4 people;
- 5-40 gallons – for a family of 4-6 people;
- from 40 gallons or more – such heaters are installed is not in the apartment and a private home.
Important: with the increase in the price rise of the heater and power consumption. Therefore, it is not recommended to choose the volume of the tank is much greater than the needs of the family: after all, payment for water heating will be charged regardless of whether you expend the water or not.
Internal coating tank
Plastic – the cheapest, but fragile.
Stainless steel and titanium enamel – are the most durable material and resistant to temperature changes.
Enamel and glass ceramics – the most commonly used, as characterized by an optimal ratio of price and strength. Minus – sensitivity to temperature fluctuations (not recommended to heat the water above 60 ° C).
“Wet” TEN – consists of an electric and heat conducting tube filaments. Advantages: durability and reliability. Disadvantages: slow heating, a relatively small efficiency predisposition to scale.
“Dry” TEN – unlike the previous embodiment is placed in a special metal flask PETN excluding contact with water and scale formation. This heater is easier to replace. Disadvantage – the high cost. “Dry” TEN is perfect for working with “hard” water from the well.
Spiral – consists of a high resistance wire and an insulating sheath. Advantages: fast heating, high efficiency, resistance to scum. Disadvantages: relatively smaller durability and reliability.
Heat exchanger – metal ribbed design. It occurs in an indirect and gas-heated models.
The combustion chamber (gas)
Open (natural draft) – takes oxygen directly from the room and requires additional ventilation. The products of combustion are ejected through a vertical chimney.
Heaters with open combustion chamber type are characterized by high efficiency and does not depend on the supply. The disadvantage – low environmental (fumes, odor, “burning” of oxygen) and the complexity of installation. Outdoor camera equipped with powerful outdoor heaters.
Locked (forced draft) – unlike the previous embodiment, it takes oxygen from the outside. Lead combustion products produced by a horizontal fan and chimney. Such devices are easier to install and more environmentally friendly water heaters with closed combustion chamber. The disadvantage – the dependence on the power supply.
Water heaters open chamber are cheaper than similar devices sealed chamber but require installation vertical chimney (height of not less than 4 meters), which increases their cost. Although the boilers with the closed chamber in need of a horizontal chimney, but it is less vertical.
Gas – gas is ignited by pressing. This method is less convenient than others, but does not need batteries and has a long service life. Note that the pilot burner will never go out, so gas cannot be considered cost-effective solution.
Electrical ignition (Battery or network) – the gas is ignited automatically when you open the tap. Such an embodiment is more convenient than gas, but when powered from the battery requires periodic replacement of discharged elements.
Turbine column – as in the previous case, the gas is ignited automatically. Such ignition type used in flow-through apparatus.
- single-phase (220V)– for many storage and some flow models (up to 8 kW);
- a three-phase network (380)– much of the flow devices (12 kW);
- 220V / 280V– universal version, but possibly a better device to connect all the same to the three-phase network.
Important: when installing the water heater be sure to lay a separate ground wire.
Pressure – is designed for direct connection to the water mains and service more outlets (eg, bathroom and kitchen). The pressure model is a good solution for larger homes.
Gravity – is connected to the water mains through the respective tool (cumulative water heater) manually filled with water (bulk water heater) or connected to a cold water tap (flow water heater). Free-flow water heater safer pressure model, but serves only one water points. This embodiment is good for small garage or garden.
Before choosing a heater determine where to install the device, make measurements allotted for this purpose space on all sides. Water heaters are cylindrical, rectangular and flat – you cannot say what form it is more convenient because it all depends on the specific location. For example, a rectangular unit, ideal for the cabinet or niche.
Mechanical (buttons, knobs) – with control of water heaters cost less than units with electronic control. Disadvantage – less functionality.
Electronic (electronic control unit) – a model with a similar control different broad functionality and are often supplied with display. Disadvantage – the high cost.
Limiting the heating temperature – makes it possible to set the maximum allowable temperature of heating. A useful feature, especially if the water heater used by children, and there is a risk of burns.
Accelerated heat – allows to heat the water is 2-3 times faster. In this mode, the water heater is working at full capacity, which increases power consumption. Typically, such a feature is available on models with two heating elements.
The level of protection against water – indicates the degree of safety of water heater:
- 0 – no protection;
- 1 – against water drops falling in a vertical direction;
- 2 – of droplets directed at an angle of 15 °;
- 3 – from raindrops directed at an angle of 60 °;
- 4 -from rain falling in any direction;
- 5 – against water jets from any direction.
Protection against overheating – automatically stops the supply of electricity or gas, when reaching the maximum allowable device temperature.
Frost protection – automatically heats the water at its cooling (temperature – below 41 ° C). Such function is required, if the water heater is installed in a room where the temperature falls to 32 ° C and below (villa, hut). Otherwise, the water in the tank and the pipes expand and can damage the heater during freezing.
Protection from inclusion without water – fire and prevents failure of the cylinder due to operation with a dry tank (under these conditions the heater is heated rapidly).
Surge Protection – relevant for water heaters with the electronic control in connection with sensitivity to sudden voltage fluctuations.
Protection against electric shock – automatically shuts down the heater leakage current.
Safety valve – cylinder protects against the excessive pressure that is generated due to the expansion of water during heating.
Self-diagnosis – automatically checks the operability of the heater and defines it to malfunction. Upon detection of failure relevant information is displayed on the display, and the device is switched off.
Flame modulation – automatically adjusts the power of the flame, on the basis of the conditions in the domestic hot water system. This feature provides a stable temperature of water supplied.
Gas-control – automatically shuts off the gas when the flame attenuation burner. The importance of this function cannot be overestimated since it prevents an explosion or gas poisoning.
Magnesium anode – special rod, which prevents corrosion of the tank and heating elements. Usually, it serves for 4-7 years and then must be replaced.
Remote control – allows you to control the water heater at a distance. Remote makes it easy to work with the device, and is particularly useful when the water heater is located far from the point-WATER.
LEDs – light bulbs, signaling the readiness for operation of the heater (power indicator) and the beginning of the heating water (heat lamp).
Thermometer – informs about the current water temperature.
Display – displays the information on the cylinder (including the water temperature and switching indication heating resource magnesium anode).
Two heating element – heating water accelerate and enhance the reliability of the heater: the failure of one of the heating element device will operate with another TAN.
Sink – supplied water inlet heater. Such a device consists of a small closet, sink and set on top of the water heater. This design is compact.
Filters (water, gas) – protect the device against mechanical particles together with water, gas.
Also, heaters may be additionally equipped with a shower nozzle, hose and shower cock (in-line water heaters).
Water heater – and expensive equipment is acquired based on the use for a long time. So buy the unit in specialized stores, ask the seller a certificate of conformity for the water heater and the official warranty card. Carefully read these documents (especially in the part of the guarantee conditions).